SPC to run Agricultural Value Chain Course in Nadi, Fiji – 17-19 April 2013

From 17th to 19th April the Land Resources Division of Secretariat of the Pacific Community is to run a course on agricultural value chains, aimed at a range of Pacific Island stakeholders in government and the private sector.  The course will be introduced by Land Resources Division’s Director, Inoke Ratukalou and will feature the expertise of some of the region’s top specialists in work to enhance value along the agricultural supply chain.

The course objective is to provide staff with technical expertise and skills in agricultural value chain analysis and development. The outcome is that participants and their organizations will deepen their understanding and improve their performance in moving value chains forward in the project and program context.

The course will enhance the participants’ expertise and skills in value chain analysis and development approaches in:

  • Value chain concepts, principles and applications
  • Analysis and assessment of value chains, including value chain mapping, economic analysis, value-added calculation, and governance mapping
  • Promoting linkages and facilitating value chain upgrade including through public private partnership (PPP)
  • Monitoring and evaluating value chain development and sustainability


The course will follow a structured process designed to provide background concepts and methodological tools, discussion, workshops on case studies, and special focus topics.

The course will be organized as a three-day face to face program designed to provide actual experience of value chain analysis and assessment. In addition it will also focus on tackling issues and challenges of value chain development based on “real-life” context. The training will also provide workshops, interactive classroom discussions and presentations to build understanding of the value chain approach and the issues and challenges of value chain development.

Training materials developed for the course will cover a full array of conceptual, analytical and practical topics, which are instrumental to analyzing and developing a value chain, including the following:

a. Rationale for Value Chain Approach

b. Prioritizing Value Chains for Analysis

c. Mapping the Value Chain

d. Calculating costs and margins along the value chain

e. Technology, Knowledge, and Upgrading

f. Calculating Income of Actors along the Value Chain

g. Employment in the Value Chain

h. Governance in the Value Chain

i. Linkages in the Value Chain

j. Facilitating value chain upgrade including through public private partnership (PPP)

k. Monitoring and evaluating value chain development and sustainability



Assignment objective

Develop a web-based platform where actors and other stakeholders in Pacific agricultural value chains can learn, interact and explore opportunities for improving the functioning of their value chains.


A significant part of the assignment will be to gather together all the existing information on Pacific agricultural value chains, and work with it to ensure it is accessible to the relevant stakeholder groups. This will include categorising it, cross-referencing and linking, adding descriptions or summaries where appropriate, and synthesising or rewriting as necessary to make it accessible to the different stakeholder groups. Information on value chains outside the pacific region will also be included where it is judged to be potentially useful.

The website will also promote value chain analysis as a useful tool for at least some of the stakeholder groups. There are many value chain toolkits currently available, though none specifically tailored for the Pacific region. The website will include links to those that are available, with summaries of their application and relevance for the Pacific region.

The website will also include (or link to) information on interventions that are known to improve value chain functioning, for example market information systems (general information, and actual market information where available), forming farmer associations, and accessing credit.


The website will provide an interactive platform for stakeholder groups to discuss and learn from each other, as individuals or as groups. For example, depending on user needs, there could be a discussion forum for a specific value chain (export papaya from Fiji, for example), or for a specific group of stakeholders (all exporters, for example). The website will therefore link up actors across value chains, and contribute to improving openness and transparency, and building trust.

Building awareness of the website, and buy-in from stakeholders, will be an important part of the process. A consultative e-group of representatives of the different stakeholder groups will be established at an early stage, and input will be invited throughout the process of developing the website. This will ensure that the website meets the needs of the user groups. Awareness and buy-in will be consolidated at a workshop, to be held in April 2013, which will bring together many of the key regional stakeholders and will also provide an opportunity to widely publicise the web platform in the regional media. The workshop will launch the website, and explore ways to expand and develop it to build its usefulness.


An Introduction to Cost Benefit Analysis

Here I make available materials intended to give an introduction to cost benefit analysis.

Recently I ran two Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) workshops – one three day workshop primarily for SPC and Fiji’s Ministry of Primary Industries (co-delivered with economist Marita Manley of GIZ and with a session and other help from economist Paula Holland of SOPAC-SPC), and one shorter workshop run in two morning sessions over 2 days for the EU-Increasing Agricultural Commodity Trade project.  I must also give credit to Aaron Buncle from SPREP for allowing me to adapt his materials for my workshops and advising me from his experiences running his own set of CBA workshops for the Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change project.

The ultimate goal of the workshops – and indeed the goal of CBA – was to be an aid to decision making on resource allocation, or in other words to help all present to decide how to spend their resources in the most beneficial way from an economic and a human welfare perspective.

The immediate aim of the workshops was to support participants to start on the process of creating and implementing their own CBA workplans including their own Excel analysis.  We began by introducing the concepts behind Cost Benefit Analysis, through a series of presentations, and then taking them through two Excel examples with fictional data.

Here, with permission from other contributors, I release the material we used for the workshops, which are downloadable below.  If you would like to get an idea of CBA, then do take some time to run through the presentations to get some idea of what it’s all about.  Important documents to use as tools to take CBA forward are the CBA Workplan and the Excel Template.

The presentations may be tricky to follow as they are designed to be explained verbally in a workshop format, rather than to stand alone.  So for questions on any of this material, please feel free to email me on jonathanb at spc.int

Introduction to CBA

Paula Holland’s presentation giving an overview of CBA, its purpose and role is available here.

Paula Holland’s accompanying paper entitled “Simple Introduction to Cost-Benefit Analysis” is available here.

Cost Benefit Analysis Workplan

This document is a road map to doing Cost Benefit Analysis at the start of a project, including key questions to ask to define the objectives of a project.

Measuring Costs and Benefits

The Measuring Costs and Benefits presentation describes different types of costs and benefits, with an illustrative example.


The presentation on discounting describes how we account for the fact that costs and benefits happen at different points in time – and that benefits accruing now are more valuable to us at the present than the same benefits accruing in future.  Marita Manley delivered this presentation in my first workshop.

Here is an online tutorial on discounting from a non-SPC source.

Sensitivity Analysis

Pre-project CBA requires that we predict the future.  But the future is inherently uncertain.  This presentation describes how we account for uncertainty about the future and for things that “go wrong”.  Marita Manley delivered this presentation in my first workshop.

Data Collection: Secondary Data Sources and CBA

Secondary data are data that have been collected from somebody who is not the user.  Often secondary data are publically available such as censuses, household surveys and consumer price indices.  Such data are often essential to supplement primary data (data collected from a project specially in order to do a CBA).  This presentation describes and gives links to secondary data sources in Fiji, PNG, Solomon Islands and Palau.

Example 1

This is a simple example that can be worked through of a drain that prevents flooding.  The data should be treated as fictional although a similar project did take place in Wainikoro, Vanua Levu.  The Excel spreadsheet template (click here) can be filled in on the basis of the information in the powerpoint presentation (click here).

Example 2

The second example is of field trials of soil health preservation treatments – e.g. NPK fertilizer and mucuna planting.  The data are fictional but a similar set of trials will take place under an ACIAR project in Taveuni. The spreadsheet can be filled in on the basis of the information in the powerpoint presentation.

For more in-depth material, here are a couple of references for further reading:

Boardman, E.A., Greenberg, D.H., Vining, A.R. and Weimer, D.L. 2006 Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 3rd edition.
Weimer (ed)., 2008.  Cost-Benefit Analysis and Public Policy.  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management Classics Series.

Australian Government 2010, Best Practice Regulation Handbook, Canberra.

Commonwealth of Australia (Department of Finance and Administration) 2006, Handbook of Cost-Benefit Analysis, January.

Boardman, E.A., Greenberg, D.H., Vining, A.R. and Weimer, D.L., 2006, Cost-Benefit Analysis Concepts and Practice, 3rd edition, Pearson Prentice Hall.

Powerpoint presentation – Introduction to Cost-Benefit Analysis: CBA Unit of Australian Government

OECD, Pearce, D., Atkinson, G. and Mourato, S., 2006, Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment: Recent Developments, OECD Publishing.

A fairly formal online exposition of CBA from Alexis Tsoukias

Cost benefit analysis, a tool to plan and evaluate agricultural projects

This story is from LRD-SPC web site on a workshop I just organised and co-delivered with Marita Manley of GIZ.

Every time we go to the supermarket to buy a few groceries we look for answers to several questions about a product before committing to a purchase. How much does the item cost? What is the volume? How quick is it to prepare? What is its nutritional value? Where is it made? What are the ingredients? Unknowingly, we are conducting a cost-benefit analysis of the product, examining its dollar value stacked up against the inputs that went into producing the product, and making an informed decision about whether to buy it or not.

This is similar to the way we might appraise an agricultural project. However in this case we can carry out an economic assessment and the net value of a project.

A workshop taking place this week at the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Suva office is examining just this practice: the use of cost-benefit analysis as a tool and an economic framework to appraise agricultural projects. More than 15 staff of the Fiji Ministry of Primary Industries requested SPC Suva to conduct training in this key decision-making tool. Colleagues from Land Resources Division are also attending the workshop. The workshop is facilitated by the SPC Land Resources Division in collaboration with GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) and SPC’s Applied Geoscience and Technology (SOPAC) Division and funded by the Fiji Ministry of Primary Industry.

Workshop trainer and SPC-SOPAC Economic Analysis Adviser Dr Paula Holland commented in her opening remarks that cost benefit analysis is a tool designed to answer the question, “is this project worth doing?” She said that it is a tool that aids decision-makers to maximise the economic impact of their work and that it is used to analyse the merits of a project from the perspective of society, rather than the individual.

Cost benefit analysis is not all about numbers. It takes into account socio-economic as well as environmental costs. It is a crucial additional tool for governments, regional organisations and donor agencies, and can be used at the project design stage, when prioritising the allocation of resources among projects, and for monitoring and evaluation.

In the Pacific the agriculture and forestry sector contributes a significant proportion of the Gross Domestic Product and export earnings, and provide subsistence production, cash income, customary gifts and livelihoods for rural communities. Resources including people, time, money and skills are scarce thus the need to weigh the benefits and costs of different policy and project options available to avoid wasted public and donor funds.

From an economic perspective, the agriculture and forestry sector faces many challenges. One such challenge is stagnant or declining growth. In addition, a significant number of Pacific Islanders face food security issues, and land degradation and soil erosion are impacting sustained yields, revenues and livelihoods. Increased imports and consumption of imported food and agricultural products leads to higher trade deficits and poor nutrition.

However, our land resources are not being used to their fullest potential. Farmers often do not have access to credit to buy inputs. Climate change could bring significant costs. Given all of these factors, there has never been a greater need to pick projects that make good use of available resources to bring about sustainable development. Cost benefit analysis can help decision-makers make rational choices about distribution of resources; however it is not widely carried out in the Pacific. The workshop will empower agricultural workers to conduct their own cost benefit analyses.

Workshop presenters include Jonathan Bower, United Kingdom Overseas Development Institute Resource Economist working with SPC’s Land Resources Division, and Marita Manley, GIZ Climate Change Adviser and Resource Economist. The workshop started on Monday 23th and will end on Wednesday 25th April. For more information, please contact Jonathan Bower ( jonathanb [at] spc.int ), or Emil Adams ( emila [at] spc.int )

Sugar Tax

This story from the BBC is an interesting addition to the conversation about whether we should tax unhealthy foods to force people to eat more healthily.  Researchers from the US have proposed a sugar tax to combat that country’s soaring consumption of sugar and sweeteners.  Others dissent.

The story also mentions that “Denmark and Hungary have a tax on saturated fat, while France has approved a tax on soft drinks” which is news to me.  Interesting.

PACER Plus – what now?

This interesting article about PACER Plus from 25th Jan 2012 was written by PhD candidate Wesley Morgan for the Development Policy Blog for the Development Policy Centre based in the Crawford School of Economics at Australia National University.   It underlines the dilemmas and challenges facing participants particularly Australia.  Although the article cites SPC and SPC-commissioned studies on export restrictions, it is posted for readers’ interest and is not the official view of SPC.

Agricultural and Forestry Economics Publications

The Land Management and Resource Policy Support team aims to conduct economic analysis on projects and policy issues relating to LRD core themes of food security, agriculture, forestry and land, and to communicate the findings.

Below is a fairly comprehensive list of economic analysis on LRD themes in the Pacific region, whether published by LRD or other authors.  If any relevant papers or analysis are missing, please contact the Resource Economist on jonathanb [at] spc.int

This took me a long time to put together so please use it well!

LRD Economics Publications

Below are listed economics-themed studies and reports relevant to agriculture, forestry and other relevant work, which have been either written, co-authored or commissioned by LRD staff.  These are available in the LRD Economics Publications folder.

Marita Manley, 2007. Do community-based approaches to natural resource management work? Pacific Economic Bulletin.*Marita Manley was then Resource Economist, LRD.
Andrew McGregor, R. Michael Bourke, Marita Manley, Sakiusa Tubuna, Rajhnael Deo, 2009. Pacific island food security: situation, challenges and opportunities.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.*Marita Manley was then Resource Economist, LRD; Rajhnael was then Economic Statistician, LRD.
Tim Martyn, 2010. The economic feasibility of coconut-oil bio-fuels in the Pacific.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.*Tim Martyn was then Resource Economist, LRD.
Marita Manley and Tim Martyn, 2009. The threats and opportunities of higher food prices in the Pacific, Pacific Perspectives 2009: Crises and Opportunities, UNESCAP.*Tim Martyn was then Resource Economist, LRD; Marita Manley was Agricultural and Forestry Policy Adviser, LRD.
Tuifa’asisina Steve Rogers and Tim Martyn, 2009. Background Paper: Food.  Pacific Economic Survey.  FAO. *Tim Martyn was then Resource Economist, LRD.
Andrew McGregor, Pousima Afeaki, Dr. John (Jack) Armstrong, Amanda Hamilton, Dr. Jim Hollyer, Roy Masamdu, Kevin Nalder, 2011.  Pacific Island Taro Market Access Scoping Study. EU-Funded Facilitating Agricultural Commodity Trade Project, Land Resources Division, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.*Commissioned by LRD’s Facilitating Agricultural Commodity Trade Project, Land Resources Division.  Roy Masamdu was currently Biosecurity and Trade Facilitation Officer for LRD.
Rosa Kambuou, Clifton Gwabu and Mary Taylor, 2007. The contribution of crop-plant genetic diversity to economic development and sustainable rural livelihoods in the Pacific region. Pacific Economic Bulletin.*Mary Taylor was then Regional Advisor, LRD-SPC

Other Studies on the Economics of Agriculture and Forestry in Pacific Island Countries

Links to studies and reports relevant to the economics of agriculture, forestry and other relevant work are provided on the following topics.


Economics of Agriculture and Food Security
Jetori Mauro, Michael Lyne and Gilbert Nartea, 2010. Constraints to small-grower investment in coffee production in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea.  Pacific Economic Bulletin
Ron Duncan, 2007. Overview of the Economics Research Workshop on Pacific Agriculture.  Pacific Economic Bulletin
Euan Fleming, 2007. Agricultural productivity change in Pacific island countries, Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Mahendra Reddy, 2007. Enhancing the agricultural sector in Pacific island economies. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Bob Warner, 2007. Smallholders and rural growth in Solomon Islands.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Andrew M. McGregor, 2007. The export of horticultural and high-value agricultural products from the Pacific islands.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Shashi Kad and Tony Weir, 2008.  Virgin coconut oil as a tool for sustainable development in outer islands.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Heiko Bammann, 2007. Participatory value chain analysis for improved farmer incomes, employment opportunities and food security. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Louis M. Kurika, John E. Moxon and Meli Lolo, 2007. Agricultural research and development on small islands and atolls: the Papua New Guinea experience. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Raghunath D. Ghodake, 2007. Overview of papers from the PNG National Agricultural Research Institute. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Davinder Singh, Raghunath D. Ghodake and Alan R. Quartermain, 2007. Addressing national development in the Pacific through a regional crop improvement program. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
E.M. Aregheore and D.J. Hunter, 2007. The role of local feed resources in the economic empowerment of smallholder livestock farmers in Pacific island countries.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
John Moxon and Tio Nevenimo, 2007. Utilisation of indigenous nuts, spices and other minor crops in the Pacific region. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Michael Manning, 2007. Papua New Guinea’s strategic plan for agriculture. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Padma Lal, 2006. Potential efficiency gains in the Fiji sugar industry: the performance payment system.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Ron Duncan, 2007. Enhancing the labour absorption capacity of Pacific agriculture.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Renuka Mahadevan, 2009. The withdrawal of EU sugar preferences and the bittersweet reform pill for Fiji.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Tuifa’asisina Steve Rogers, 2010. Agriculture Data: Report on a scoping study in six Pacific Island Countries. SPREP.
Richard Beyer, 2010. Agro-Based Processing Opportunities for Tonga, FAO.
Andrew McGregor, 2006.  Pacific 2020: Background Paper: Agriculture. AusAid.
All ACP Commodities Program, 2010.  Agriculture for Growth: learning from experience in the Pacific.  Summary results of five country studies in Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu.  FAO.
Andrew McGregor and Pierre Chanel Watas with Livai Tora, 2009.  The Vanuatu Organic Cocoa Growers Association (VOCGA) : A Case Study of Agriculture for Growth in the Pacific. FAO.
Asian Development Bank and International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.  Building Climate Resilience in the Agriculture Sector in Asia and the Pacific.  Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines.
R. Michael Bourke and Tracy Harwood (eds), 2009.  Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Australia National University. – This is a comprehensive book containing a number of quality articles on the agricultural economy in PNG including the following example, although data tends to be out of date, this is an astonishing analysis of both high quality and quantity (142 pages), of sources of cash income from agriculture in PNG. 
Matthew Allen, R. Michael Bourke and Andrew McGregor, Part 5, Cash Income from Agriculture, in R. Michael Bourke and Tracy Harwood (eds), 2009.  Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Australia National University.
Appendix Tables, in R. Michael Bourke and Tracy Harwood (eds), 2009.  Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Australia National University.
Ron Duncan, 2010. Setting Agricultural Research Priorities in Fiji.  Working Paper.
Paresh K Narayan and Biman Prasad, 2004.  Economic importance of the sugar industry in Fiji: simulating the impact of a 30 percent decline in sugar production. Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of the South Pacific.
Roderick Duncan, 2008.  Agricultural productivity, the electoral cycle and ENSO effects in Papua New Guinea.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Tim Anderson, 2008. Women roadside sellers in Madang.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Reuben W. Sengere, Willie Susuke and Bryant Allen, 2008.  The rehabilitation of coffee plantations in Papua New Guinea: the case of Obihaka.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Biman C Prasad and Paresh K Narayan, 2005. The plan to increase Fiji’s rice production – is it worthwhile?  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Biman Chand Prasad and Paresh K Narayan, 2004. The relationship between Fiji Sugar Corporation’s profitability and sugarcane production: an empirical assessment.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Martin Gould, Giles Dickenson-Jones and Richard Wood, 2011. The second international food and fuel price shock and Forum island economies. International Finance and Development Division, the Australian Treasury.
Economics of Forestry
Colin Hunt, 2010. Compensating for the costs of reducing deforestation in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Colin Filer, 2010. The impacts of rural industry on the native forests of Papua New Guinea.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Stephen Howes, 2009.  Cheap but not easy: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Papua New Guinea.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Economics of Land
Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, 2008.  Land Management and Conflict Minimisation Report and 10 Sub-Reports.
AusAid, 2008.  Making Land Work Report and 16 Case Studies.  
Charles Yala, 2008.  Improving access to finance through land titling: evidence from the Hoskins Smallholder Oil Palm Project.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Spike Boydell, Garrick Small & John Sheehan, 2008.  Review of Financial Management of Customary and Other Land in the Pacific.  Land Management and Conflict Minimisation Report.  Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.
Biman C. Prasad, 2006. Resolving the agricultural land lease impasse in Fiji.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
R. Michael Bourke, 2005. Agricultural production and customary land in Papua New Guinea; in

Jim Fingleton (ed), 2005. Privatising Land in the Pacific: A defence of customary tenures. Discussion Paper.  The Australia Institute.

Chris Lightfoot, 2005. Does customary land ownership make economic sense?; in

Jim Fingleton (ed), 2005. Privatising Land in the Pacific: A defence of customary tenures. Discussion Paper.  The Australia Institute.

Tim Curtin and David Lea, 2006.  Land titling and socioeconomic development in the South Pacific.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Steven Gosarevski, Helen Hughes and Susan Windybank, 2004.  Is Papua New Guinea viable with customary land ownership?  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Jim Fingleton, 2004.  Is Papua New Guinea viable without customary groups? Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Tim Anderson, 2006.  On the economic value of customary land in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
David Lea, 2009. New initiatives in the development of customary land: group versus individual interests. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Charles Yala, 2006.  Rethinking customary land tenure issues in Papua New Guinea.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Tim Anderson, 2009.  Land registration, land markets and livelihoods in Papua New Guinea.  Aidwatch.
Prasad, B.C. and Tisdell, C., 1996. Getting Property Rights ‘right’, Land Tenure in Fiji, Pacific Economic Bulletin, Vol.1, pp.31-46.
Miscellaneous: Macroeconomics, Environmental Economics, Data Sources
Pacific Regional Information System (PRISM), Statistics for Development Program, SPC.  Click here for a list of all reports and data sources including HIES, MDG, Health and Census Reports and links to National Statistics Offices
Anything published by the Pacific Economic Bulletin (click for PEB main site).
Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics and World Bank, 2011. Republic of Fiji Poverty Trends, Profiles and Small Area Estimation (Poverty Maps) in Republic of Fiji (2003-2009).  World Bank.
Sunil Kumar and Shalendra Singh, 2009.  Policy Options for the Small Pacific Island Economies in the event of Global Economic Crisis.  Conference Paper for 2009 Conference on “Turmoil and Turbulence in Small Island Developing States”– at the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies, University of the West Indies.
Kim Robertson, 2011. HIES 2010 Poverty Analysis.  Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Vanuatu.
Craig Sugden and Kiyoshi Taniguchi, 2007.  Structural change versus economic inertia. Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, 2011.  Out of Session Paper, Regional Economic Outlook.  
Prasad, B.C., 2003. “Institutional Responses to Environment and Natural Resources Management: A Case of the Sustainable Development Bill for Fiji”, Global Environmental Research.  Vol.7, No.1, pp.123-128.
Prasad, B.C and Tisdell, C., 2006. Institutions, Economic Performance and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of the Fiji Islands, Nova Science Publishers: New York
United Nationals Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2011.  Chapter 2, Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2011.  UNESCAP.  See pages 70 to 75 for a succinct look at economic challenges for the Pacific region.
AusAid, 2009, Pacific Economic Survey 2009: Engaging with the World.  
Bob Warner and Eric Omuru, 2008. PNG commodity prices—an opportunity not to be missed.  Pacific Economic Bulletin.
Asian Development Bank, 2011.  Asian Development Outlook 2011. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.  “a comprehensive economic analysis of 45 economies in developing Asia and the Pacific.”
Asian Development Bank, 2010.  Asian Development Outlook 2010. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.  
Asian Development Bank, 2009.  Asian Development Outlook 2009. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Lars Hein, 2006.  Environmental Economics Tool Kit: Analyzing the Economic Costs of Land Degradation and the Benefits of Sustainable Land Management, United Nations Development Program and Global Environment Facility.
Asian Development Bank, 2011.  Food Security and Climate Change in the Pacific: Rethinking the Options. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Asian Development Bank, 2011. The Political Economy of Economic Reform in the Pacific. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Asian Development Bank, 2010.  Solomon Islands 2010 Economic Report.  Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Asian Development Bank, 2009.  Vanuatu Economic Report 2009.  Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Asian Development Bank, 2006. Juumemmej: Republic of the Marshall Islands Social and Economic Report 2005.  Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Asian Development Bank, 2006. Tuvalu Economic Report 2006: From Plan to Action.  Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Ron Duncan and Ila Temu, 1995. Papua New Guinea: longer term developments and recent economic problems.  Asian Pacific Economic Literature, Australian National University.  
Ron Duncan and Satish Chand, 2002.  The Economics of the ‘Arc of Instability.  Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Vol. 16, pp. 1-9, 2002, Australian National University.
Giles Dickenson-Jones and Albert Wijeweera, 2010. An empirical analysis of price and income elasticities of Papua New Guinea’s exports.  Pacific Economic Bulletin



PACC Economics Workshop and Presentation on Agricultural Data Sources

Last week I participated in and presented at the second of three great workshops about cost benefit analysis (CBA), organised by SPREP‘s Aaron Buncle, for the Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project, which is led by Taito Nakalevu of SPREP.  This workshop was aimed at national level PACC food security project leaders, and the third will be aimed at PACC coastal management project leaders.

The second workshop was attended by people from Palau, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Tonga, five regional-level economists (unusual to have so many regional economists in one room), PACC project coordinator Taito Nakalevu and UNDP-Samoa Regional Technical Adviser Gabor Vereczi.

Here is a link to a story about a similar previous CBA workshop.

It was gratifying to see the national officials leave with the tools to conduct cost benefit analyses of their own projects and indeed to think more naturally and intuitively about how to increase the economic impacts of their own work.

My presentation about “secondary” agricultural data sources that may be needed for a CBA is available for download here: Sourcing Secondary Data for Cost Benefit Analysis